Assets carried at amortised cost
At the end of the reporting period, the Group estimates whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. A financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired and impairment losses are incurred only if there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the asset (a ‘loss event’) and that loss event (or events) has an impact on the future cash flows of the financial asset or group of financial assets that can be reliably estimated. Loss events were divided into definite (‘hard’) loss events of which occurrence requires that there is a need to classify the client into the default category, and indefinite (‘soft’) loss events of which occurrence may imply that there is a need to classify the client into the default category.
The Group first assesses whether objective indications exist individually for financial assets that are individually significant, and individually or collectively for financial assets that are not individually significant. If the Group determines that for the given financial asset assessed individually there are no objective indications of its impairment (regardless of whether that particular item is material or not), the given asset is included in a group of financial assets featuring similar credit risk characteristics, which is subsequently collectively assessed in terms of its possible impairment. Financial assets that are individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment loss is or continues to be recognised are not included in a collective assessment of impairment.
If there is impairment indicator for impairment of loans and receivables or investments held to maturity and recognised at amortised cost, the impairment amount is calculated as the difference between the carrying value in the statement of financial position of the respective asset and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. The carrying value of the asset is reduced through the use of an allowance account, and the resulting impairment loss is charged to the income statement. If a loan or held to maturity investment has a variable interest rate, the discount rate for measuring any impairment loss is the current effective interest rate determined under the contract.
The calculation of the present value of estimated future cash flows of a collateralised financial asset reflects the cash flows that may result from foreclosure less costs for obtaining and selling the collateral, whether or not foreclosure is probable.
For the purpose of collective evaluation of impairment, the credit exposures are grouped in order to ensure the uniformity of credit risk attached to the given portfolio. Many different parameters may be applied to the grouping into homogeneous portfolios, e.g., the type of counterparty, the type of exposure, estimated probability of default, the type of collateral provided, overdue status outstanding, maturities, and their combinations. Such features influence the estimation of the future cash flows attached to specific groups of assets as they indicate the capabilities of repayment on the part of debtors of their total liabilities in conformity with the terms and conditions of the contracts concerning the assessed assets.
Future cash flows concerning groups of financial assets assessed collectively in terms of their possible impairment are estimated on the basis of contractual cash flows and historical loss experience for assets with credit risk characteristics similar to those in the group.
Historical loss experience is adjusted on the basis of current observable data to reflect the effects of current conditions that did not affect the period on which the historical loss experience is based and to remove the effects of conditions in the historical period that do not exist currently.
For the purpose of calculation of the amount to be provisioned against balance sheet exposures analysed collectively, the probability of default (PD) method has been applied. By calibration of PD values, taking into account characteristics of specific products and emerging periods for losses on those products, such PD values allow already arisen losses to be identified and cover only the period in which the losses arising at the date of establishment of impairment should crystallise.
When a loan is uncollectible, it is written off against the related provision for impairment. Before any loan is written off, it is necessary to conduct all the procedures required by the Group and sets the amount of the loss. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off reduce the amount of the provision for loan impairment in the income statement.
If in a subsequent period, after the transitional period, the impairment loss amount is decreasing and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised (e.g., improvement of the debtor’s credit rating), then the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed by adjusting the allowance account. The amount of the reversal is recorded in the income statement.
Assets measured at fair value available for sale
At the end of the reporting period the Group estimates whether there is an objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. In the case of equity instruments classified as assets available for sale, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost resulting from higher credit risk is considered when determining whether the assets are impaired. If such kind of evidence concerning available for sale financial assets exists, the cumulative loss – determined as the difference between the cost of acquisition and the current fair value – is removed from other comprehensive income and recognised in the income statement. The above indicated difference should be reduced by the impairment concerning the given asset which was previously recognised in the income statement. Impairment losses concerning equity instruments recorded in the income statement are not reversed through the income statement, but through other comprehensive income. If the fair value of a debt instrument classified as available for sale increases in a subsequent period, and such increase can be objectively related to an event occurring after the recording of the impairment loss in the income statement, then the respective impairment loss is reversed in the income statement.
The Group considers renegotiations on contractual terms of loans and advances as impairment indicator unless the renegotiation was not due to the situation of the debtor but had been carried out on normal business terms. In such a case the Group makes an assessment whether the impairment should be recognised on either individual or group basis.