2.10. Financial assets

The Group classifies its financial assets to the following categories: financial assets valued at fair value through the income statement; loans and receivables; financial assets held to maturity; financial assets available for sale. The classification of financial assets is determined by the Management at the time of their initial recognition.

Standardised purchases and sales of financial assets at fair value through the income statement, held to maturity and available for sale are recognised on the settlement date – the date on which the Group delivers or receives the asset. Changes in fair value in the period between trade and settlement date with respect to assets carried at fair value is recognised in profit or loss or in other components of equity. Loans are recognised when cash is advanced to the borrowers. Derivative financial instruments are recognised beginning from the date of transaction.

A financial asset is de-recognized if Group loses control over any contractual rights attached to that asset, which usually takes place if the financial instrument is disposed of or if all cash flows attached to the instrument are transferred to an independent third party.

Financial assets valued at fair value through the income statement

This category comprises two subcategories: financial assets held for trading and financial assets designated at fair value through the income statement upon initial recognition. A financial asset is classified in this category if it was acquired principally for the purpose of short-term resale or if it was classified in this category by the companies of the Group. Derivative instruments are also classified as “held for trading”, unless they were designated for hedging according to IAS 39.

Disposals of debt and equity securities held for trading are accounted according to the weighted average method.

The Group classifies financial assets/financial liabilities as measured at fair value through the income statement if they meet either of the following conditions:

  • assets/liabilities are classified as held for trading i.e. they are acquired or incurred principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing them in the near term, they are a part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that are managed together and for which there is evidence of a recent actual pattern of short-term profit making or they are derivatives (except for derivatives that are designated as and being effective hedging instruments and financial guarantee contracts),
  • upon initial recognition, assets/liabilities are designated by the entity at fair value through the income statement according to IAS 39.

If a contract contains one or more embedded derivatives, the Group designates the entire hybrid (combined) contract as a financial asset or financial liability at fair value through the income statement unless:

  • the embedded derivative(s) does not significantly modify the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract; or
  • it is clear with little or no analysis when a similar hybrid instrument is first considered that separation of the embedded derivative(s) is prohibited, such as a prepayment option embedded in a loan that permits the holder to prepay the loan for approximately its amortised cost.

The Group also designates the financial assets/financial liabilities at fair value through the income statement when doing so results in more relevant information, because either:

  • it eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as “an accounting mismatch”) that would otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases; or
  • a group of financial assets, financial liabilities or both is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the group is provided internally on that basis to the entity's key management personnel.

Financial assets and financial liabilities classified to this category are valued at fair value upon initial recognition.

Interest income/expense on financial assets/financial liabilities designated at fair value (Note 2.4), except for derivatives the recognition of which is discussed in Note 2.17, is recognised in net interest income. The valuation and result on disposal of financial assets/financial liabilities designated at fair value is recognised in trading income.

Loans and receivables

Loans and receivables consist of financial assets not classified as derivative instruments, with payments either determined or possible to determine, not listed on an active market. They arise when the Group supplies monetary assets, goods or services directly to the debtor without any intention of trading the receivable.

Held to maturity investments

Investments held to maturity comprise listed on active markets financial assets, not classified as derivative instruments, where the payments are determined or possible to determine and with specified maturity dates, and which the Group intends and is capable of holding until their maturity.

In the case of sale by the Group before maturity of a part of assets held to maturity which cannot be deemed insignificant the held to maturity portfolio is tainted, and there with all the assets of this category are reclassified to the available for sale category.

In reporting periods presented in these financial statements, there were no assets held to maturity at the Group.

Available for sale investments

Available for sale investments consist of investments which the Group intends to hold for an undetermined period of time. They may be sold, e.g., in order to improve liquidity, in reaction to changes of interest rates, foreign exchange rates, or prices of equity instruments.

Interest income and expense from available for sale investments are presented in net interest income. Gains and losses from sale of available for sale investments are presented in gains and losses from investment securities.

Available for sale financial assets and financial assets measured at fair value through the income statement are valued at the end of the reporting period according to their fair value. Loans and receivables, as well as investments held to maturity are measured at adjusted cost of acquisition (amortised cost), applying the effective interest rate method. Gains and losses resulting from changes in the fair value of “financial assets measured at fair value through the income statement” are recognised in the income statement in the period in which they arise.

Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of available for sale financial assets are recognised in other comprehensive income until the derecognition of the respective financial asset in the statement of financial position or until its impairment: at such time the aggregate net gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is now recognised in the income statement. However, interest calculated using the effective interest rate is recognised in the income statement. Dividends on available for sale equity instruments are recognised in the income statement when the entity’s right to receive payment is established.

The fair value of quoted investments in active markets is based on current market prices. If the market for a given financial asset is not an active one, the Group determines the fair value by applying valuation techniques. These comprise recently conducted transactions concluded according to normal market principles, reference to other instruments, discounted cash flow analysis, as well as valuation models for options and other valuation methods generally applied by market participants.

If the application of valuation techniques does not ensure obtaining a reliable fair value of investments in equity instruments not quoted on an active market, they are stated at cost.