2.2. Consolidation

Subsidiaries
Subsidiaries comprise entities, regardless of the nature of the involvement with an entity (including special purpose vehicles) over which the Group controls the investee. The control is achieved when the Group has power over the investee, is exposed or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to use its power over the investee to affect its returns. When the Group has less than a majority of the voting rights of an investee, it considers all relevant facts and circumstances in assessing whether it has power over the investee, including a contractual arrangements between the Group and other vote holders, rights arising from other contractual arrangements, the Group’s voting rights and potential voting rights. If facts and circumstances indicate that there are changes in at least one of the three elements of control listed above, the Group reassess whether it controls an investee. The consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the Group obtains control over the subsidiary and ceases when the Group loses control of the subsidiary. The consolidated financial statements combine items of assets, liabilities, equity, income and expenses of the parent with those of its subsidiaries eliminating the carrying amount of the parent’s investment in each subsidiary and the parent’s portion of equity of each subsidiary. Thus arises goodwill. If goodwill has negative value, it is recognised directly in the income statement (see Note 2.20). The profit or loss and each component of other comprehensive income is attributed to the Group’s owners and to the non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance. If the Group loses control of a subsidiary, it shall account for all amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to that subsidiary on the same basis as would be required if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. Therefore, if a gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income would be reclassified to profit or loss on the disposal of the related assets or liabilities, the Group shall reclassify the gain or loss from equity to profit or loss (as a reclassification adjustment) when it loses control of the subsidiary. If a revaluation surplus previously recognised in other comprehensive income would be transferred directly to retained earnings on the disposal of the assets, the Group shall transfer the revaluation surplus directly to retained earnings when it loses control of the subsidiary.

Non-controlling interest is equity in a subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent. The Group presents non-controlling interest in the consolidated statement of financial position within equity, separately from the equity of the owners of the parent. Changes in a parent’s ownership interest in a subsidiary that do not result in a loss of control are accounted for as equity transaction (i.e. transactions with owners in their capacity as owners). In such cases, the Group adjusts the carrying amount of the controlling and non-controlling interests to reflect the changes in their relative interests in the subsidiary. The Group recognises directly in the equity any difference between the amount by which the non-controlling interests are adjusted and the fair value of the consideration paid or received and attributes it to the owners of the parent.

In case when an acquirer made a bargain purchase, which is a business combination, and a result of that is a gain, the acquirer recognises the resulting gain in profit or loss on the acquisition date. Before recognising a gain on a bargain purchase, the acquirer reassesses whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and recognises any additional assets and liabilities that are identified in that review. The acquirer then reviews the procedures used to measure the amounts required to be recognised at the acquisition date to ensure that the measurements appropriately reflect consideration of all available information as of the acquisition date.

Intra-group transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between companies of the Group are eliminated in full. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of impairment of the asset transferred. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.

The company also applies accounting policies in line with IFRS 3 Business Combinations to combinations of business under common control in the case of the economic content of the transaction.
Consolidation does not cover those companies whose scale of business operations is immaterial in relation to the volume of business of the Group. Those companies were recognised at cost less impairment.