2.20. Intangible assets

The Group measures intangible assets initially at cost. After initaial recognition, intangible assets are recognised at their cost of acquisition adjusted by the costs of improvement (rearrangement, development, reconstruction or modernisation) less any accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses. Accumulated amortization is accrued by the straight line method taking into account the expected period of economic useful life of the respective intangible assets.

Goodwill

Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and in a business combination achieved in stages, the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer's previously held equity interest in the acquire over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed.

Goodwill on acquisition of subsidiaries is included in “Intangible assets”. Goodwill is not amortised, but it is tested annually for impairment and if there have been any indication that it may be impaired, and it is carried in the statement of financial position at cost reduced by accumulated impairment losses. The Group assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indication that cash generaing unit to which goodwill is allocated may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. Goodwill impairment losses should not be reversed.

Gains and losses on the disposal of the activity include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the sold activity. Goodwill is allocated to cash generating units or groups of cash generating units for the purpose of impairment testing. The allocation is made as at the date of purchase to those cash-generating units or groups of cash generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose, not bigger than operating segments in accordance with IFRS 8 irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those units.

Computer software

Purchased computer software licences are capitalised in the amount of costs incurred for the purchase and adaptation for use of specific computer software. These costs are amortised on the basis of the expected useful life of the software (2-11 years). Expenses attached to the maintenance of computer software are expensed when incurred. Expenses directly linked to the development of identifiable and unique proprietary computer programmes controlled by the Group, which are likely to generate economic benefits in excess of such costs expected to be gained over a period exceeding one year, are recognised as intangible assets. Direct costs comprise personnel expenses directly related to the software.

Capitalised costs attached to the development of software are amortised over the period of their estimated useful life.

Computer software directly connected with the functioning of specific information technology hardware is recognised as “Tangible fixed assets”.

Development costs

The Group identifies development costs as intangible asset as the asset will generate probable future economic benefits and fulfil the following requirements described in IAS 38, i.e., the Group has the intention and technical feasibility to complete and to use the intangible asset, the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete and to use the intangible asset and the ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

“Development costs” useful lives are finite and the amortization period does not exceed 3 years. Amortization rates are adjusted to the period of economic utilisation. The Group shows separately additions from internal development and separately those acquired through business combinations.

Development expenditure comprises all expenditure that is directly attributable to research and development activities.

Intangible assets are tested in terms of possible impairment always after the occurrence of events or change of circumstances indicating that their carrying value in the statement of financial position might not be possible to be recovered.