2.3. Associates and joint ventures

Associates are all entities over which the Group has significant influence but not control or joint control, generally accompanying a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control of those policies.

A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

Under the equity method, on initial recognition the investment in an associate or a joint venture is recognised at cost. The carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognise the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. Goodwill forms part of the carrying amount of an investment in an associate or a joint venture and it is neither amortised nor tested for impairment.

After application of the equity method, the Group determines whether it is necessary to recognise any additional impairment with respect to its net investment in the associate or joint venture. At the reporting date the Group determines whether there was an objective evidence for impairment of an investment in an associate or a joint venture. If there was an objective evidence for impairment, the Group calculates impairment comparing the recoverable amount of the investment with its carrying value. Investments in associates and joint ventures are settled using the equity method of accounting and they are initially recognised at cost.

The share of the Group in the profits (losses) of associates since the date of acquisition is recognised in the income statement, whereas its share in other comprehensive income since the date of acquisition – in other comprehensive income. The carrying amount of the investment is adjusted by the total changes of share of net assets. When the share of the Group in the losses of an associate becomes equal to or greater than the share of the Group in that associate, possibly covering receivables other than secured claims, the Group discontinues the recognition of any further losses, unless it has assumed obligations or has settled payments on behalf of the respective associate.

Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated proportionally to the extent of the Group’s interest in the respective associate. Unrealised losses are also eliminated, unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the transferred asset. Accounting policies applied by associates have been adjusted, wherever necessary, to assure consistency with the accounting principles applied by the Group.

The Group discontinues the use of the equity method from the date when its investment ceases to be an associate or a joint venture. If the retained interest in the former associate or joint venture is a financial asset, the Group measures the retained interest at fair value. The Group recognises in profit or loss any difference between the carrying amount of the investment at the date the equity method was discontinued and the fair value of any retained interest and any proceeds from disposing of a part interest in the associate or joint venture.