2.17. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

Derivative financial instruments are recognised at fair value from the date of transaction. Fair value is determined based on prices of instruments listed on active markets, including recent market transactions, and on the basis of valuation techniques, including models based on discounted cash flows and options pricing models, depending on which method is appropriate in the particular case. All derivative instruments with a positive fair value are recognised in the statement of financial position as assets, those with a negative value as liabilities.

The best fair value indicator for a derivative instrument at the time of its initial recognition is the price of the transaction (i.e., the fair value of the paid or received consideration). If the fair value of the particular instrument may be determined by comparison with other current market transactions concerning the same instrument (not modified) or relying on valuation techniques based exclusively on market data that are available for observation, then the Group recognises the respective gains or losses from the first day in accordance with the principles described under Note 2.18.

Embedded derivative instruments are treated as separate derivative instruments if the risks attached to them and their characteristics are not strictly linked to the risks and characteristics of the underlying contract and the underlying contract is not measured at fair value through the income statement. Embedded derivative instruments of this kind are measured at fair value and the changes in fair value are recognised in the income statement.

In accordance with IAS 39 AG 30: (i), there is no need to separate the prepayment option from the host debt instrument for the needs of consolidated financial statements, because the option’s exercise price is approximately equal on each exercise date to the amortised cost of the host debt instrument. If the value of prepayment option was not to be closely related to the underlying debt instrument, the option should be separated and fair valued in the consolidated financial statements of the Group; (ii), exercise price of a prepayment option reimburses the lender for an amount up to the approximate present value of lost interest for the remaining term of the host contract. Lost interest is the product of the principal amount prepaid multiplied by the interest rate differential. The interest rate differential is the excess of the effective interest rate of the host contract over the effective interest rate the entity would receive at the prepayment date if it reinvested the principal amount prepaid in a similar contract for the remaining term of the host contract.

The assessment of whether the call or put option is closely related to the host debt contract is made before separating the equity element of a convertible debt instrument in accordance with IAS 32.

The method of recognising the resulting fair value gain or loss depends on whether the given derivative instrument is designated as a hedging instrument, and if it is, it also depends on the nature of the hedged item. The Group designates some derivative instruments either as (1) fair value hedges against a recognised asset or liability or against a binding contractual obligation (fair value hedge), or as (2) hedges against highly probable future cash flows attributable to a recognised asset or liability, or a forecasted transaction (cash flow hedge). Derivative instruments designated as hedges against positions maintained by the Group are recorded by means of hedge accounting, subject to the fulfilment of the criteria specified in IAS 39:

  • At the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the entity’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. That documentation shall include identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the entity will assess the hedging instruments effectiveness in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk.
  • The hedge is expected to be highly effective in offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk, consistently with the originally documented risk management strategy for that particular hedging relationship.
  • For cash flow hedges, a forecast transaction that is the subject of the hedge must be highly probable and must present an exposure to variations in cash flows that could ultimately affect profit or loss.
  • The effectiveness of the hedge can be reliably measured, i.e. the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk and the fair value of the hedging instrument can be reliably measured.
  • The hedge is assessed on an ongoing basis and determined actually to have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which the hedge was designated.

The Group documents the objectives of risk management and the strategy of concluding hedging transactions, as well as at the time of concluding the respective transactions, the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item. The Group also documents its own assessment of the effectiveness of fair value hedging and cash flow hedging transactions, measured both prospectively and retrospectively from the time of their designation and throughout the period of duration of the hedging relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item.

Due to the split of derivatives classified into banking book and into trading book, the Group applies a different approach to the presentation of interest income/expense for each of these groups of derivatives that is described in Note 2.4 “Interest income and expenses”. The remaining result from fair value measurement of derivatives is recognised in “Net trading income”.

Fair value hedges

Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments designated and qualifying as fair value hedges are recognised in the income statement together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.

In case a hedge has ceased to fulfil the criteria of hedge accounting, the adjustment to the carrying value of the hedged item for which the effective interest method is used is amortised to the income statement over the period to maturity. The adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged equity security remains in other comprehensive income until the disposal of the equity security.

Cash flow hedges

The effective part of the fair value changes of derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income. The gain or loss concerning the ineffective part is recognised in the income statement of the current period.

The amounts recognised in other comprehensive income are transferred to the income statement and recognised as income or cost of the same period in which the hedged item will affect the income statement (e.g., at the time when the forecast sale that is hedged takes place).

In case the hedging instrument has expired or has been sold, or the hedge has ceased to fulfil the criteria of hedge accounting, any aggregate gains or losses recognised at such time in other comprehensive income remain in other comprehensive income until the time of recognition in the income statement of the forecast transaction. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the aggregate gains or losses recorded in other comprehensive income are immediately transferred to the income statement.

Derivative instruments not fulfilling the criteria of hedge accounting

Changes of the fair value of derivative instruments that do not meet the criteria of hedge accounting are recognised in the income statement of the current period.

The Group holds the following derivative instruments in its portfolio:

Market risk instruments:

  • Futures contracts for bonds, index futures
  • Options for securities and for stock-market indices
  • Options for futures contracts
  • Forward transactions for securities
  • Commodity swaps

Interest rate risk instruments:

  • Forward Rate Agreement (FRA)
  • Interest Rate Swap (IRS), Overnight Index Swap (OIS)
  • Interest Rate Options

Foreign exchange risk instruments:

  • Currency forwards, fx swap, fx forward
  • Cross Currency Interest Rate Swap (CIRS)
  • Currency options.